The most authentic thing about us...

is our capacity to create, to overcome, to endure, to transform, to love and to be greater than our suffering

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Ben Okri

Marian Wright Edelman
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The question is not whether we can afford to invest in every child; It is whether we can afford not to.
Jesse Owens (1913-1980)
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The battles that count aren't the ones for gold medals.
 
The struggles within yourself—the invisible, inevitable battles inside all of us—that's where it's at.
Let's NOT waste the opportunites we have...

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Deaths in Custody

- How many people get killed by the police and in UK state custody?

The rule of thumb is 1 victim per week killed by the police forces of England and Wales alone and at least 10 more in UK state custody dying an untimely death (i.e. inside prisons, mental health institutions, detention camps etc.).

The NGO Inquest offers detailled statistics of police and prison deaths derived from official numbers for more than the last decade. [1] Official 'I'PCC figures add up to almost 600 deaths in custody during the last 3 years. [2] According to a recent study called Annual Report 2006/2007 of the Forum for Preventing Deaths in Custody consisting mostly of official departments and commissions, most of these deaths could have been prevented [3]. However, since the victims are all poor and / or black ...

[1]  http://inquest.gn.apc.org/statistics.html
[2]  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7005556.stm
 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7005556.stm#map
[3]  http://www.preventingcustodydeaths.org.uk


- Who gets killed? And who doesn't?

The first recorded death in custody case was a homeless Nigerian immigrant named David Oluwale who was found dead in a river in Leeds 1969. His case was also the one and only exception where any officers were convicted, tough only for assault charges and NOT for manslaughter, let alone murder. [1] Only recently a 2nd book was published on this case, benefiting from newly declassified documents. [2] As the NGO Inquest points out, 'a disproportionate number of Black people and those from minority ethnic groups have died' in state custody. [3] However, as INJUSTICE co-director Ken Fero [4] explains, in absolute numbers the majority of deaths in police custody in the UK remain whites, though black bereaved are more likely to start campaigns demanding justice. What all victims of death in state custody do have in common, is that they belong definitely to the class of the 'havenots' and mostly live in tough inner city areas. Cause what would happen if the police started killing one rich white resident of a posh area after the other, guess you can imagine yourself ... Inquest speaks of 'institutional racism in the criminal justice system' [2]
And by the way, did you know that 'within mental health settings', where again black males are disproportionately affected, torture a.k.a. 'Pain Compliance' is being officially considered as O.K., too? [5]

[1]  http://www.4wardever.org/adoluwale/4525093769
[2]  http://www.irr.org.uk/2007/may/ha000008.html
 https://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=11761
 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=11760
[3]  http://inquest.gn.apc.org/policy.html#black
[4]  http://www.injusticefilm.co.uk
[5]  http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt200405/jtselect/jtrights/15/1511.htm#a53

List of some of our lost loved ones

Deaths in police, prison and psychiatric custody since 1978. We list below some deaths of black and minority ethnic individuals which have taken place in prison, police or hospital custody and which have given rise to concern because of unexplained or mysterious circumstances surrounding those deaths and / or allegations of maltreatment, dereliction of duty or brutality.

Each entry in this list contains the following details:

Name, Age, Date of death, Category code , Circumstances surrounding death, Inquest verdict.

Catgeory codes:

Po: Police;

Pr: Prisons, Young Offenders Institutes, Remand Centres;

Ps: Psychiatric Hospitals.

  • Michael Ferreira, 19, 10/12/78, Po, Died in Stoke Newington police station after being stabbed in a racist attack, Inquest verdict unknown
  • S. Singh Grewal, 40, 02/08/79, Po, Died in Southall police station, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Henry Floyd, 26, 23/08/79, Po, Found hanged in cell of West End Central police station, Suicide
  • John Eshiett, 26, 24/10/79, Pr, Died in Brixton prison while awaiting trial, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Richard Campbell, 19, 31/03/80, Pr, Died of de-hydration after being force fed and large quantities of drugs in Ashford remand centre, Death by self neglect because of inadequate medical facilities
  • Leroy Gordon, 20, August 80, Po, Died in Pershore police station after crowd suspecting him of robbery-sat on him, Asphyxiation due to compression of the neck
  • Winston Rose, 27, 13/07/81, Po, Died in police van after being restrained by police officers taking him to psychiatric hospital, Unlawful killing at the hands of the police
  • Shohik Meah, 43, 06/11/81, Po, Died in Thornhill Road police station – Birmingham, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Paul Worrell, 21, 12/01/82, Pr, A suicide risk; was found hanged in Brixton prison after obtaining the materials to kill himself, Open verdict
  • Changa Singh, 60, 25/03/82, Po, Died of alcoholic poisoning in Cathay Park police station, Misadventure
  • Franklyn Lee, 20, September 1982, Po, According to the police died of injuries sustained during a burglary, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Simeon Collins, 17, 10/12/82, Po, Died of acute injuries to liver and spleen day after being arrested by City Road police, Accidental death
  • Colin Roach, Age unknown, 12/01/83, Po, Died of gunshot wound sustained while he was in Stoke Newington police station, Suicide
  • James Ruddock, 44, 14/02/83, Po, Died after being denied treatment for diabetes and sickle cell for 12 hours in Kensington police station, Natural causes attributed to self neglect
  • Nicholas Ofusu, 31, 06/05/83, Po, Death by misadventure
  • Mathew Paul, 19, 06/05/83, Po, Found hanged in Leman Street police station, Suicide due to lack of care
  • Leslie George Singh, Age unknown, 06/12/83, Pr, Fell from 4th floor of Hammersmith hospital after being transferred from Wormwood Scrubs, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Michael Dean Martin, Age unknown, 06/07/84, ?, ?, Accidental death aggravated by lack of care
  • Curtis Marsh, 27, 21/10/84, Pr, A suicide risk who hanged himself inside Brixton prison, Suicide
  • Chittaranjan Joshi, Age unknown, 02/01/85, Pr, Found hanged in his cell while on remand in Pentonville, Suicide
  • Harold Roberts, Age unknown, 11/03/85, Ps, Suicide
  • James Hall, Age unknown, 30/03/85, Po, Inquest verdict unknown
  • John Mikkelson, 34, 15/07/85, Po, Unlawful killing; after police appeal verdict changed to death by misadventure
  • Cynthia Jarrett, Age unknown, 06/10/85, Po, Accidental death
  • Keith Hicks, 34, 1986, Pr, A schizophrenic epileptic who died in Brixton prison, Misadventure
  • Anthony Lloyd Powell, 18, February 1986, Ps, A schizophrenic, died after being given an injection of modecate, Open verdict
  • Stephen Bogle, 27, 12/08/86, Po, Natural causes aggravated by lack of care
  • Donald Chambers, 29, 11/09/86, Ps, Death by misadventure
  • Anwar Kureshi, Age unknown, 06/10/86, Pr, An obvious suicide risk – managed to hang himself in Brixton prison while on remand, Suicide
  • Caiphas Lemard, Age unknown, 08/10/86, Po, Non-dependent drug abuse aggravated by lack of care
  • Akhtar Moghul, 47, 27/01/87, Pr, Died in Holloway prison while on remand – spoke no English and was allegedly denied medical treatment for a heart condition, Natural causes aggravated by lack of care
  • Clinton McCurbin, Age unknown, 20/02/87, Po, Death by misadventure
  • Ahmed Katangole, 24, 23/03/87, Pr, A suicide risk was found hanged in his cell at Pentonville, Suicide aggravated by official indifference and lack of care
  • Jasbir Singh Rai, 32, 23/04/87, Pr, Found hanged in Wakefield prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Nenneh Jalloh, Age unknown, 24/04/87, Po, Death by misadventure
  • Mohammed Parkit, 50, 01/05/87, Po, Open verdict
  • Anachu Osita, 28, 18/05/87, Pr, Natural causes aggravated by lack of care
  • Tunay Hassan, 25, 26/06/87, Po, Drug dependency aggravated by lack of care
  • John Ryan, 24, July 1987, Pr, Died in Winson Green hospital, 3 days after being admitted suffering from dehydration, had been seen drinking his own urine, Death by lack of care
  • Terence Brown, 35, August 1987, Ps, Open verdict
  • Anthony Mahony, 24, 19/08/87, Pr, Died almost naked in a strip cell in Brixton prison; had a history of mental illness, Natural causes aggravated by lack of care
  • Mark Ventour, Age unknown, 24/09/87, Po, Asphyxia caused by chewing gum in throat
  • Joseph Palombella, 40, October 1987, Po, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Femi Adelaja, 36, February 19, Pr, Died of a heart condition in a cell at Old Bailey; was denied treatment for sarcoidosis of the heart, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Samuel Carew, 22, 05/02/88, Pr, Killed himself in Brixton prison’s hospital wing, Suicide
  • Armando Belonia, Age unknown, 16/03/88, Pr, Died of pneumonia in locked hospital wing of Wandsworth prison, Natural causes aggravated by lack of care
  • Bahader Singh, 26, 13/05/88, Pr, Died in India hours after leaving Barlinnie jail where he had suffered physical and racial abuse, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Oakley Ramsey, 25, June 1988, Po, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Kelroy Briscoe, 32, 20/06/88, Pr, Hanged himself in Wormwood Scrubs, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Joseph Watts, 30, 23/08/88, Ps, Accidental death
  • Derek Buchanan, 19, 04/09/88, Po, Drowning
  • Sajjan Atwal, 36, 04/09/88, Pr, Hanged himself in Winson Green; was a suicide risk and had made other attempts on his life, Lack of care – verdict was quashed and a new verdict recorded of suicide due to lack of care
  • Martin Richmond, 30, 04/12/88, Pr, Found hanged in Brixton prison, Open verdict
  • Wayne Tombison, Age unknown, December 88, Pr, Found hanged in Wandsworth prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • David ‘Duke’ Daley, 44, February 1989, Po, Open verdict
  • Nicholas Bramble, 17, March 1989, Po, Accidental death
  • Vincent Graham, 40, July 1989, Po, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Jamie Stewart, 22, 02/07/89, Po, Death by misadventure due to excessive overdose of cocaine
  • Edwin Carr, 39, 12/07/89, Po, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Mr Romany, Age unknown, October 1989, Pr, Found dead in Chanings Wood prison; other prisoners said his screaming for a day and a night had been ignored, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Siho Iyugiven, 27, 05/10/89, Pr, Kurdish asylum seeker set himself alight in Harmondsworth detention centre after being refused asylum, Misadventure
  • Germain Alexander, Age unknown, 06/12/89, Pr, Died after being removed to strip cell in Brixton; had bruising all over his body, Natural causes aggravated by lack of care
  • Kimpua Nsimba, 24, 15/06/90, Pr, Zairean asylum-seeker found hanged in Harmondsworth detention centre; no-one had spoken to him in over 4 days, Suicide
  • Oliver Pryce, 30, 24/07/90, Po, Unlawful killing
  • Aslam Khan, 29, 12/10/90, Pr, Hanged himself while on remand in Brixton, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Edwin Robinson, 28, 30/11/90, Pr, A suicide risk with a psychotic illness hanged himself in Brixton prison, Killed himself because of lack of care
  • Delroy McKnight, 29, 19/01/91, Pr, Cut his own throat with glass from cell window and bled to death in Wandsworth prison, Killed himself while the balance of his mind was disturbed and death was contributed to by lack of care
  • Vandana Patel, 21, 29/04/91, Po, Died after being stabbed in DVU in Stoke Newington police station, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Kwaku Ohene, 30, 13/06/91, Pr, Had mental problems and committed suicide in hospital wing of Swaleside, Death aggravated by lack of care
  • Ian Gordon, 24, 12/08/91, Po, Psychiatric patient shot dead by Telford police, Lawful killing
  • Orville Blackwood, 31, 28/08/91, Ps, Died after being given injection of ‘calming’ drugs in secure unit at Broadmoor, Accidental death; on appeal to High Court by Orville’s family, verdict quashed and a verdict of accidental death recorded again
  • Omasase Lumumba, 32, 08/10/91, Pr, Died of a ‘heart attack’ while being ‘controlled and restrained’ by 6 guards in Pentonville, Unlawfully killed using improper methods and excessive force in the process of control and restraint
  • Arthur Allison, 50, 1992, Po, Died four days after being arrested by Leicester police, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Melita Crawford, 24, 03/01/92, Pr, Had mental problems and was found dead while on remand at Risley, Misadventure
  • Mark Fletcher, 21, 08/01/92, Ps, Detained under the Mental Health act and died in All Saints psychiatric hospital after being given an injection in his spine, Cardiac arrest
  • Munir Yusef Mojothi, 26, June 1992, Ps, Died of overdose in Clifton hospital after being given 2 injections of droperidol, Lack of care
  • Jerome Scott, 27, 23/06/92, Ps, Collapsed and died on the way to hospital in a police van after being given two injections, Therapeutic misadventure
  • Errol Commock, 24, 03/07/92, Pr, A known suicide risk committed suicide in hospital wing of Winson Green, Suicide
  • James Segawa, 28, 28/08/92, Pr, HIV+ asylum-seeker died in Belmarsh after officials refused to believe he was ill, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Ian Francis, 28, 05/09/92, Pr, Died of blood poisoning twelve days after injuring himself at Send prison, Death by natural causes
  • Leon Patterson, 32, 21/11/92, Po, Died while on remand at Stockport police station, Unlawful killing verdict was overturned in 1994 and changed to ‘Misadventure to which neglect contributed’
  • Nadeem Younus, 21, 04/12/92, Pr, Died of an overdose in little Hay prison after obtaining paracetamol tablets from the hospital, Open verdict
  • Randhir Showpal, 43, 19/12/92, Po, Died in Norbury police station after being detained under the Mental Health Act, Misadventure
  • Warren Jones, 26, 01/01/93, Pr, Found hanged in Leicester prison, Suicide
  • Adejare Akinbiyi, 30, 10/03/93, Pr, Died after suffering a succession of severe asthma attacks in Belmarsh, Accidental death brought about by lack of care
  • Turan Pekoz, 43, 16/03/93, Pr, Died after setting himself alight in Quest House immigration centre (Croydon), Misadventure
  • Joy Gardner, 40, 01/08/93, Po, Died after being arrested by ‘specialist’ officers from the Extradition Unit of the Met; was gagged with 13 feet of tape, Inquest adjourned till trial of officers involved, officers later acquitted
  • Rupert Marshall, 29, 30/01/94, Ps, Died in Horton psychiatric hospital after being injected with an anti-psychotic drug, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Kwanele Siziba, 27, 27/04/94, Po, Fell 150 feet to her death, attempting to flee what she believed were immigration officials, Misadventure
  • Carl Owens, 22, 31/05/94, Pr, Died while on remand of a methadone OD in segregation unit of Brixton prison, Misadventure
  • O. Akinbobola, 24, 26/06/94, Pr, Found hanged in cell at Woodhill prison; had protested innocence and had gone on hunger strike, Suicide
  • Mark Harris, 31, 10/07/94, Po, Found hanged after arrested by Bristol police officers, Open verdict
  • Jonathan Weekes, Age unknown, 10/08/94, Ps, Died in Chase Farm hospital, Natural causes – pneumonia
  • Shkander Singh, 37, 19/09/94, Po, Died in Stewart Street police station (Glasgow); Had been heard shouting and crying in cell but was ignored, Heart Failure
  • Norman Manning, 26, 29/09/94, Pr, Stabbed to death by inmates in Long Lartin prison in November 1997, 41-year-old Frederick Low was convicted of Norman’s murder
  • Joseph Nnalue, 31, 23/10/94, Po, Died after falling from balcony in flat in Stockwell – police and immigration officials wee calling at his flat at the time, Accidental death
  • Tyrone Wilson, 34, 18/11/94, Po, Died 18 days after police were called to his flat in Ipswich, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Oluwashiji Lapite, 34, 16/12/94, Po, Died during a struggle with police officers from Stoke Newington police station, Unlawful Killing. In June 1998 the CPS reaffirmed its decision not to prosecute the officers involved.
  • Mark Holness, 28, 14/01/95, Pr, Found hanged in his cell at Whitemoor prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Lungile Simelane, 27, 06/05/95, Pr, Found hanged in her cell at Holloway prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Brian Douglas, 33, 08/05/95, Po, Died 8 days after being restrained with new batons by Clapham police officers, Misadventure
  • Dajin George, 26, 05/06/95, Ps, A schizophrenic died after falling 15 floors from a flat in Leyton, was meant to be under supervision by hospital staff, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Mohammed Massaquoi, 22, August 1995, Pr, Found hanged in his cell at Highdown prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Muttavel Vasanthan, 25, 25/08/95, Pr, Sri Lankan asylum seeker found hanged in his cell at Norwich prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Peter Williams, 19, 31/08/95, Pr, Found hanged in his cell at Aylesbury YOI, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Raja Khan, 24, 05/10/95, Pr, Found hanged in his cell at Mount prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Denis Stevens, 29, 18/10/95, Pr, Found dead in punishment block of Dartmoor prison; had been restrained in a body belt for 24 hours, Accidental death – December 1997, despite appeal to Court of appeal by family who wanted verdict of unlawful killing, coroner would not allow this, family boycotted resumed inquest
  • Brian Augustine, Age unknown, 30/10/95, Pr, Found hanged in his cell at Pentonville prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Kenneth Severin, 25, 26/11/95, Pr, Found dead in his cell at Bellmarsh after being restrained face down by 8 guards, Open verdict
  • Wayne Douglas, 25, 05/12/95, Po, Died in Brixton police station, Accidental death
  • Alton Manning, 33, 09/12/95, Pr, Died after being forcibly restrained by 8 guards at Blakenhurst (private) prison, Unlawful killing. In March 1999 the CPS decided not to prosecute the officers involved in his death, saying that there was no realistic prospect of obtaining a conviction
  • Newton White, 33, January 1996, Ps, Drowned in bath at Denis Hill Unit of Maudesley hospital, Open verdict
  • Noorjahan Begum, 35, 15/03/96, Po, Died after falling from balcony of flat where she was living; two immigration officials were calling at the flat at the time, Accidental death
  • Ibrahima Sey, 29, 16/03/96, Po, Died after being sprayed (while handcuffed) with CS spray in Ilford police station, Unlawful killing. In October 1998 the CPS decided that thare was not enough evidence to prosecute the officers involved in his death.
  • Ziya Bitirim, 47, April 96, Po, Died after collapsing and vomiting during his arrest, Accidental death
  • Donovan Williams, 36, April 96, Po, Died after collapsing in his cell during a search in Peckham police station, Accidental death
  • Dominic Otoo, 19, 22/05/96, Pr, Found dead in Hindley remand centre, Natural Causes
  • Ahmed El Gammal, 33, 13/8/96, Po, Died after struggling with police from Leyton police station, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Fred Tokunpor Akiyemi, 46, 4/10/96, Po, Died after falling from 5th floor of flat; Peckham police were calling at his flat at the time, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Veron Cowan, 32, October/November 1996, Ps, Died in secure unit of Blackberry Hill hospital, Natural Causes
  • George Bosie Davies, 36, 7/10/96, Po, Died in Marylebone police station after being arrested on suspicion of being drunk, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Oscar Okoye, 53, 11/11/96, Po, Died 5 months after being arrested by Streatham police on suspicion of being drunk, Natural causes
  • Herbert Gabbidon, 68, 10/01/97, Po, Died while in the custody of Walsall police who were deporting him back to Jamaica, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Peter Austin, 30, 30/01/97, Po, Found hanged in Brentford magistrates court, Lack of care contributed to accidental death
  • Ronnie Clarke, 38, 06/03/97, Pr, Found unconscious in cell at Wellingborough; taken to Kettering hospital where he died without regaining consciousness, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Abel Mukuna, 39, 12/03/97, Pr, Died in Greenwich hospital five days after being admitted from Belmarsh, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Marlon Downes, 20, 23/03/97, Po, Found hanged in cell of Harlesden police station, Open verdict
  • Peter San Pedro, 25, 3/04/97, Po, Died after walking into path of lorry hours after being arrested and sprayed with CS spray, Open verdict (December 98)
  • Lytton Shannon, 36, 1/05/97, Po, Collapsed and died after being arrested by Wolverhampton police, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Jason Sebastian, 23, 19/09/97, Pr, Found hanged in Belmarsh following 4 day segregation as punishment, Open verdict
  • Elliott Mitchell, 20, 26/02/98, Pr, Found hanged in Reading remand centre, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Christopher Alder, 37, 1/04/98, Po, Died after being arrested by Hull police; dragged to the station; placed on floor face down and handcuffed. In June 2002 a judge ordered the jury to clear 5 police officers charged with manslaughter and misconduct in public office charges because of conflicting evidence on how he died, Unanimous unlawful killing verdict
  • David Bennett, 38, 31/10/98, Ps, Died after being restrained face down for over 20 minutes by at least three nurses at the Norvic Clinic (Norwich), Accidental death aggravated by neglect; coroner made six recommendations
  • Patrick Louis, Age unknown, 2/11/98, Po, Died in the custody of Plumstead police who arrested him for being drunk and incapable, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Roger Sylvester, 30, 18/01/99, Po, Died 7 days after being restrained by police in Tottenham, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Robert Allotey, 37, 24/01/99, Po, Collapsed and died after being arrested by Wolverhampton police, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Paul Jemmott, Age unknown, 3/05/99, Pr, Attempted suicide by hanging at Aylesbury YOI and died five days later in hospital, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Leon Marshall, Age unknown, 15/07/99, Po, Died in hospital two days after being arrested for drugs related offences; officers were aware he had swallowed drugs but failed to take him to hospital, Accidental death
  • Spencer Weston, 21, 8/99, Po, Died after being hit by a car during a police chase. Spencer was involved in a fight in Leicester city centre between black and white youths and suffered head injuries from a racist attack. Chased by police wanting to make an arrest, he received fatal injuries after falling in the path of a passing car. The inquest into his death in May 2003 recorded a narrative verdict that ‘Spencer James Weston received fatal multiple injuries when he was hit by a motor car. At the time of the road traffic collision the deceased had evidence of MDMA (Ecstasy) at a concentration of 66 milligrams per litre and quite high levels of alcohol in his blood. He had also been seen a few minutes prior to the collision to run from the scene of a public order disturbance, with a head injury of unknown severity. The head injury, together with the alcohol and ecstasy, may have impaired his judgement.’
  • Sarah Thomas (aka Lai Hong Cheng), 34, 6/08/99, Po, Died in hospital two days after collapsing in Stoke Newington police station, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Ertan Uzan, 25, 14/12/99, Pr, Found hanged in his cell in Brixton prison, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Mr. Benmerabet, 42, 3/1/00, Po, Algerian Mr. Benmerabet collapsed outside the Atomics nightclub in Kent; Kent police were called to assist the ambulance service but deny restraint was used, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Asif Dad, 26, 16/1/00, Po, Died in the custody of Chelmsford police; according to the police, Asif was arrested after they were called to a disturbance in the street and he collapsed and died after a struggle, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Robertas Grabys, 49, 24/1/00, Pr, Lithuanian asylum-seeker hanged himself at Harmondsworth detention centre, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Keita Craig, Age unknown, 1/02/00, Pr, Suffered with mental health problems; took his own life in Wandsworth prison, Killed himself while the balance of his mind was disturbed. February 2001 – High Court orders new inquest after judicial review of the verdict. New inquest in October 2001 finds the same verdict but adds a rider that neglect was a contributory factor to the death.
  • Zahid Mubarek, 19, 23/3/00, Pr, Victim of a racist attack in his cell at Feltham Young Offenders Institute; he was just 12 hours from being released; the attack left Zahid with massive head injuries and he died five days later, His assailant, his cellmate, 19-year-old Robert Joseph Stewart, was jailed for life for his murder in November 2000
  • Edita Pommel, 20, 5/5/00, Pr, Edita Pommel was found hanged in HMP Brockhill; she had complained about racial harassment from a prison officer; her death is now the source of an investigation being carried out by West Mercia police, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Cheryl Simone Hartman, Age unknown, 18/6/00, Pr, Cheryl was found hanged in her cell at Holloway Prison; Cheryl had a history of mental illness and had asked to go to prison for medical help, Open verdict
  • Sultan Khan, 50, 30/6/00, Po, Died after being restrained by police officers in Clarence Park, St Albans. He had just left a nearby mosque and was restrained using handcuffs and leg restraints. The PCA press release commented that he had been arrested for drugs offences. The inquest into his death opened in November 2001.
  • Rashid Kausmally, 48, 1/01, Pr, A Mauritian found dead in the hospital wing of Lewes Prison. He had been charged with rape and robbery offences committed in Brighton. He was a known suicide risk and died after putting a plastic bag over his head – suffocating to death.
  • Eugene Edigin, 19, 3/01, Psy, He attended the psychiatric unit at the Whittington hospital and was detained the day before his death under the Mental Health Act because of ‘erratic behaviour’. The following day he was found unconscious in his bed. The inquest in February 2003 recorded an open verdict. His family were critical of staff who, they allege, failed to monitor his diabetes.
  • Derek Bennett, Age unknown, 16/7/01, Po, Shot dead in the street by Brixton police who alleged they were called by a member of the public; Derek was carrying a novelty lighter shaped like a gun, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Michelle Allen, Age unknown, 2/11/01, Pr, Found hanged at Barking magistrates court; The company responsible for prisoners – Securicor Custodial Services – refused to comment, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Ricky Bishop, Age unknown, 22/11/01, Po, Taken to Brixton police station to be searched where he was restrained; then taken to Kings College hospital where he died, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Jospeh Crensil, Age unknown, 25/11/01, Po, Died after falling from a third floor window of a flat in Streatham; two immigration and two police officers were questioning five other men at the flat; Jospeh – who was hiding in the bathroom – tried to escape and fell to his death, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Nariman Tahamasbi, 27, 25/2/02, Pr, Found hanged in Lewes prison, he was serving a six-month sentence, for fraud and deception.
  • Marcus Downie, 21, 11/5/02, Pr, Found hanged in Chelmsford prison.
  • Lee Duvall, 23, 14/08/02, Po, Found dead in Ladywell police station a day after his arrest.
  • Fosta Errol Thompson, Age unknown, 15/08/02, Po, Shot dead by police in St. Werbergh’s area of Bristol, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Kwame Sasu Wiredu, Age unknown, 30/08/02, Po, Arrested and taken to Stoke Newington police station where he complained of stomach pains; a doctor claimed he was fit enough to be detained; he was later found collapsed in his cell and died in Homerton hospital, Inquest verdict unknown
  • Beverley Fowler, 32, 2/10/02, Pr, Found hanged, two days before the end of her sentence, in Durham prison. She was a mother of three from Jamaica who was due to be deported back there after serving a sentence for drug smuggling. In September 2003, an inquest recorded an open verdict. The inquest was told she feared for her safety back in Kingston; the man who forced her into drug smuggling had murdered her partner.
  • Stuart Warwick, 29,16/1/03, Pr, Died from burns in HMP Winchester.
  • Mihail Bognarchuk, 42, 31/1/03, Pr, Ukrainian asylum seeker found hanged at Haslar removal centre.
  • Sponford Antonio Green, 43, 27/3/03, Po, Died after falling from the thirteenth floor balcony of the flat where he was staying. The inquest jury recorded a narrative verdict that ‘he accidentally fell from the 13th floor whilst trying to evade custody.’ Police were calling at his flat to arrest him for a breach of licence. According to his girlfriend, Antonio fled to the balcony (as he had on previous occasions when the police called) but was surprised to find police offices waiting on the neighbouring balcony. She also commented that ‘one of the officers grabbed hold of him on the shoulder. I didn’t know whether he was pulling Antonio back or pushing him over.’
  • Adel Muftah El-Hage, 29,16/3/03, Pr, Found electrocuted at Woodhill (category A) prison. Adel, a Libyan, was on remand after being arrested and charged in February 2003 with the murder of his wife, Salma Abusedra. At pre-trial hearings he had begged the judge to send him to Saudi Arabia so that he could face the death penalty, but had been refused.
  • Patrick Okello, 32, 21/5/03, Pr, found hanged at Wandsworth.
  • Rajwinder Singh Mutti, 29/3/03, Pr, Found hanged in Blakenhurst (private) prison where he was on remand for a charge of GBH. Rajwinder, an asylum seeker, had been in the UK for a few years and was granted indefinite leave to remain.
  • Ertal Hussein, 32, 21/6/03, Psy, Found collapsed at Bethlem Royal hospital, he was taken to Princes Royal University hospital where he was pronounced dead on arrival. Since 1990, Ertal had been sectioned several times. A police investigation is ongoing and the hospital has launched an internal inquiry.
  • Tema Kombe (aka Emmanuel Silva/ Gladwell Moseki Keenao), 32, 4/9/03, Psy, A Ugandan asylum seeker was found hanged in the toilet of a psychiatric ward at Heatherwood hospital, Ascot. In January 2004, an inquest returned a verdict of misadventure after hearing that he had made three previous attempts on his life.
  • Iqbal Shamraz, 35, 5/9/03, Pr, Found hanged at Nottingham prison.
  • Michael Powell, 38, 7/9/03, Po, Died after being arrested by police in Lozell’s, Birmingham. The police were called by his family after he began behaving erratically. During the course of the struggle to restrain him, Michael was knocked over by a police car and then, according to witnesses, restrained by police using batons and CS spray. Six officers were suspended.
  • Mohammed bin Duhri, 20, 20/10/03, Pr, Palestinian asylum seeker found hanged at Belmarsh maximum security prison. He had been held at Dover Immigration Removal Centre but after he allegedly assaulted a guard he was moved to Belmarsh. Three prison officers were suspended after they allegedly filed reports saying he was alive and well when he was already dead.
  • Paul Yorke, 38, 2/11/03, Po, died after being arrested by police officers at Terminal Two of Heathrow airport. He was taken to Heathrow police station where he was charged with being a ‘prohibited person’ (it is alleged that he had been banned from airport property) and then detained in a cell. He was, according to police, seen by a Forensic Medical Examiner on at least three occasions and deemed fit for detention. However, the following day, officers called an ambulance at 7.00 am after he was found collapsed in his cell. He was taken to Hillingdon hospital where he was pronounced dead. The Police Complaints Authority and the Directorate of Professional Standards are investigating his death.
  • Liang He, 23, 10/11/03, Pr, Found hanged at Bedford prison.
  •  Alison Colk, 08/01/09, Pr, was found hanging in her cell

  • Mr Sean Rigg, 21/08/08, Po, had schizophrenia, died at Brixton police station

  • David Emmanuel, also known as the reggae artist Smiley Culture, 15/03/11, Po, died of a stab wound to the heart during a police raid on his home
  • Kingsley Burrell, 31/03/11, Po,A FATHER of two from Birmingham has died following contact with police
  • Mark Duggan, 04/08/11, Po, a 29-year-old Tottenham resident, was shot and killed by police in Tottenham, North London
  • Anthony Grainger, 36, 03/03/12, Po, shot through the chest as he sat in a car
  • Shanice-Paris Goff, Yo, On 10th April 2012 two plain clothes police attended an address in Hastings House, Mulgrave Road, London to carry out a routine arrest enquiry regarding a recall to prison of 18-year-old Shanice-Paris Goff. She fell to her death from the 17th floor.
  • Jonathan Malia, Ps,The family of 24-year-old Jonathan Malia who died on 17 January 2013 under psychiatric, care have called for “justice” and “answers”. Jonathan had sought help himself for a bipolar disorder

 

Data summary

Deaths following contact with police, England and Wales
Year
Custody
Pursuit
Road traffic incident
Shooting
Total
1990 59 0 1 2 62
1991 60 1 1 3 65
1992 48 0 2 3 53
1993 36 2 0 3 41
1994 52 1 0 1 54
1995 48 2 1 2 53
1996 57 9 5 2 73
1997 58 17 8 0 83
1998 65 10 6 2 83
1999 47 8 5 3 63
2000 36 24 3 2 65
2001 34 26 9 4 73
2002 47 34 5 2 88
2003 62 29 11 2 104
2004 56 30 9 2 97
2005 42 36 9 6 93
2006 33 23 9 1 66
2007 29 14 6 5 54
2008 25 28 9 3 65
2009 15 8 5 2 30
2010 15 6 5 1 27
2011 23 7 1 2 33
2012 3 2 2 1 8

Below is a breakdown of deaths in police custody (or following other forms of contact with the police, including pursuits and road traffic incidents) since 1990, by calendar year and type 

Deaths in police custody or otherwise following contact with the police, England & Wales 1990-date
Year Type Metropolitan Police Other Forces Total
2013 Custody 1 14 15
  Pursuit 5 6 11
  RTI 0 1 1
  Shooting 0 0 0
  Total 6 21 27
         
2012 Custody 1 8 9
  Pursuit 3 5 8
  RTI 0 6 6
  Shooting 0 1 1
  Total 4 19 24
         
2011 Custody 3 20 23
  Pursuit 1 6 7
  RTI 0 1 1
  Shooting 1 1 2
  Total 5 28 33
         
2010 Custody 3 12 15
  Pursuit 0 6 6
  RTI 0 5 5
  Shooting 0 1 1
  Total 3 24 27
         
2009 Custody 4 11 15
  Pursuit 1 7 8
  RTI 3 2 5
  Shooting 0 2 2
  Total 8 22 30
         
2008 Custody 9 15 24
  Pursuit 5 23 28
  RTI 1 8 9
  Shooting 2 1 3
  Total 17 47 64
         
2007 Custody 6 23 29
  Pursuit 3 11 14
  RTI 2 4 6
  Shooting 3 2 5
  Total 14 40 54
         
2006 Custody 4 29 33
  Pursuit 3 20 23
  RTI 0 9 9
  Shooting 1 0 1
  Total 8 58 66
         
2005 Custody 9 33 42
  Pursuit 3 33 36
  RTI 2 7 9
  Shooting 2 4 6
  Total 16 77 93
         
2004 Custody 5 51 56
  Pursuit 3 27 30
  RTI 2 7 9
  Shooting 1 1 2
  Total 11 86 97
         
2003 Custody 12 50 62
  Pursuit 1 28 29
  RTI 0 11 11
  Shooting 1 1 2
  Total 14 90 104
         
2002 Custody 11 36 47
  Pursuit 3 31 34
  RTI 1 4 5
  Shooting 0 2 2
  Total 15 73 88
         
2001 Custody 9 25 34
  Pursuit 1 25 26
  RTI 1 8 9
  Shooting 2 2 4
  Total 13 60 73
         
2000 Custody 5 31 36
  Pursuit 2 22 24
  RTI 0 3 3
  Shooting 1 1 2
  Total 8 57 65
         
1999 Custody 15 32 47
  Pursuit 1 7 8
  RTI 0 5 5
  Shooting 1 2 3
  Total 17 46 63
         
1998 Custody 13 52 65
  Pursuit 3 7 10
  RTI 1 5 6
  Shooting 0 2 2
  Total 17 66 83
         
1997 Custody 15 43 58
  Pursuit 1 16 17
  RTI 3 5 8
  Shooting 0 0 0
  Total 19 64 83
         
1996 Custody 21 36 57
  Pursuit 0 9 9
  RTI 1 4 5
  Shooting 1 1 2
  Total 23 50 73
         
1995 Custody 12 36 48
  Pursuit 1 1 2
  RTI 0 1 1
  Shooting 1 1 2
  Total 14 39 53
         
1994 Custody 16 36 52
  Pursuit 0 1 1
  RTI 0 0 0
  Shooting 0 1 1
  Total 16 38 54
         
1993 Custody 17 19 36
  Pursuit 0 2 2
  RTI 0 0 0
  Shooting 2 1 3
  Total 19 22 41
         
1992 Custody 15 33 48
  Pursuit 0 0 0
  RTI 1 1 2
  Shooting 1 2 3
  Total 17 36 53
         
1991 Custody 24 36 60
  Pursuit 0 1 1
  RTI 0 1 1
  Shooting 0 3 3
  Total 24 41 65
         
1990 Custody 19 40 59
  Pursuit 0 0 0
  RTI 1 0 1
  Shooting 1 1 2
  Total 21 41 62
         
Total deaths in police custody or otherwise following contact with the police, England & Wales 1990-date
  Type Metropolitan Police Other forces Total
  Custody 249 720 969
  Pursuit 40 294 334
  RTI 19 98 117
  Shooting 21 33 54
  All deaths 330 1146 1476

Source: INQUEST casework and monitoring

INQUEST's figures are derived from our monitoring and casework and are independent of those produced by the Home Office, Independent Police Complaints Commission and other government agencies.

 

BAME deaths in prison

 

An inquest is carried out by a coronerThe legal official who orders a post-mortem and who is in charge of the inquest procedure. following every death in prison. If someone you know has died in prison we strongly recommend you contact our casework and advice service to make sure the circumstances of the death are properly looked in to.

See also statistics of all deaths in prison in England & Wales 1990-date and our policy pages on Deaths in prison.

bameprisondeathsgraph

BAME Deaths in prison (England & Wales) 1990-date

     

Year

Self-Inflicted

Non-Self-Inflicted

Restraint

Homicide

Awaiting Classification

Total

2013

5

4

0

1

2

12

2012

11

9

0

0

2

22

2011

8

17

0

0

0

25

2010

7

18

1

1

1

28

2009

6

12

0

0

0

18

2008

12

11

0

0

0

23

2007

23

13

0

0

0

36

2006

9

10

0

0

0

19

2005

17

10

1

1

0

29

2004

12

9

0

1

0

22

2003

9

6

0

0

0

15

2002

11

1

0

0

0

12

2001

6

2

0

0

0

8

2000

9

1

0

1

0

11

1999

9

10

0

0

0

19

1998

9

5

0

0

0

14

1997

6

6

0

0

0

12

1996

3

5

0

1

0

9

1995

8

0

3

0

0

11

1994

3

1

0

1

0

5

1993

4

1

0

0

0

5

1992

7

2

0

0

0

9

1991

3

1

1

0

0

5

1990

2

0

0

0

0

2

Total:

200

154

6

7

5

372

         

Source: INQUEST casework and monitoring.

 

 

 

Unlawful Killing verdicts and prosecutions

unlawfulkillinggraph

The figures below represent the number of unlawful killing verdicts and manslaughter or other serious prosecutions of state agents in cases of deaths in prison, police custody or pursuits since 1990. The figures are shown by the year the verdict was returned at an inquest or trial. Where no year is shown there were no unlawful killing verdicts returned.*

 

2013

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Jimmy Mubenga

Immigration

CPS to review decision made prior to inquest not to prosecute.

Yes

Unlawful killing

Black African

Azelle Rodney

Police shooting

Case has been passed back to the CPS for further consideration

No - replaced by an inquiry under the Inquiries Act 2005

Unlawful killing (conclusion of inquiry report)

UK Black

2011

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Ian Tomlinson

Police custody or following contact with police

Yes - officer was tried and acquitted of manslaughter in July 2012.

Yes

Unlawful killing

UK White

2006

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Mikey Powell

Police custody or following contact with police

Yes - ten officers tried for various offences - charges dropped for four officers at trial in June 2006, remainder acquitted August 2006

Yes

Critical narrative

UK Black

Robin Goodenough

Police custody or following contact with police

Yes - three officers tried for manslaughter in 2005 - jury failed to reach verdict; retried for assault in 2006- acquitted

No

N/A

UK White

 

 

 

 

 

 

2004

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Harry Stanley

Police Shooting

No

Yes

Unlawful killing; overturned at Judicial Review, May 2005

UK White

 

 

 

 

 

 

2003

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Roger Sylvester

Police custody or following contact with police

No

Yes

Unlawful killing; quashed on a technicality

UK Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

2002

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Christopher Alder

Police custody or following contact with police

5 officers charged with manslaughter - trial collapsed 2002

Yes

Unlawful killing

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

2001

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

James Ashley

Police Shooting

Yes - trial halted 2001

No

N/A

UK White

 

 

 

 

 

 

1998

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Alton Manning

Prison

No

yes

Unlawful killing

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Ibrahima Sey

Police custody or following contact with police

No

Yes

Unlawful killing

Black

David Ewin

Police Shooting

Yes– acquitted at retrial 1997

No

N/A

UK White

 

 

 

 

 

 

1996

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Shiji Lapite

Police custody or following contact with police

No

Yes

Unlawful killing

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

1995

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Richard O'Brien

Police custody or following contact with police

Yes – acquitted at trial 1999

Yes

Unlawful killing

Irish White

Joy Gardner

Police / Immigration

Yes – acquitted 1995

No

N/A

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

1993

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Leon Patterson

Police custody or following contact with police

No

Yes

a) Unlawful killing quashed b) new inquest 1996: "misadventure contributed to by neglect"

Black

Omasase Lumumba

Prison

No

Yes

Unlawful killing

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

1991

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Type

Prosecution

Inquest

Verdict

Ethnicity

Oliver Pryce

Police custody or following contact with police

No

Yes

Unlawful killing

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deaths of women in prison 

Below is the breakdown of deaths of women in prison by year since 1990. The social implications of incarcerating women are enormous. Women are often imprisoned for minor offences, which can have a terrible impact on their children particularly if they are a single parent. INQUEST conducted a comprehensive research project on deaths of women in prison, and details can be found in the report Dying on the Inside.

An inquest is carried out by a coroner The legal official who orders a post-mortem and who is in charge of the inquest procedure. following every death in prison. .

 

Deaths of Women in prison (England & Wales) 1990-date

   

Year

Self-Inflicted

Non-Self-Inflicted

Other Non-natural causes

Awaiting Classification

Total

2013

0

2

0

1

3

2012

1

2

0

1

4

2011

2

3

0

0

5

2010

1

4

2

1

8

2009

3

4

0

0

7

2008

1

3

1

0

5

2007

8

0

0

0

8

2006

3

3

0

0

6

2005

4

2

1

0

7

2004

13

7

0

0

20

2003

14

1

0

0

15

2002

9

2

0

0

11

2001

6

1

0

0

7

2000

8

2

0

0

10

1999

5

4

0

0

9

1998

4

1

0

0

5

1997

3

1

0

0

4

1996

3

1

0

0

4

1995

2

0

0

0

2

1994

1

0

0

0

1

1993

1

1

0

0

2

1992

3

0

0

0

3

1991

0

0

0

0

0

1990

1

0

0

0

1

Total:

96

44

4

3

147

Source: INQUEST casework and monitoring

 


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